ASW and warship defence capabilities
Anti-submarine warfare is a multi-layered activity. There is the submarine-submarine killer (SSK) level where one predator is in constant search for similar predators below the surface of the oceans.
The other is surface vessels fitted with sonar as integral equipment supplemented by helicopters armed with dipping or “dunking” listening devices and ready-to-use torpedoes, and the third is the long-range fixed-wing aircraft fitted with a “sting in the tail” magnetic anomaly detector that indicates the presence of metallic objects on the surface (as when submarines rise to take in fresh oxygen to recharge their batteries) or those lurking deep below the surface.
In the Kilo class of Russian submarines, India has a diminishing fleet of the first level of counter-measures against enemy submarines. It frittered away a chance of becoming self-reliant in submerged hunter-killer technology when it failed to utilize the German license to produce the HDW submarine in Mumbai docks beyond four because of the political fallout of a kickbacks sca
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